Monthly Archives: October 2016

Getting Better or Getting Well? How Culture Can Improve Your Health

man head silhouette with jigsaw

By Gordon Nagayama Hall, PhD (Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon)

If you had a cold, with a stuffy nose, sore throat, and headache, would you want a medicine that treated all the symptoms or just the stuffy nose? Most people would want the medicine that treated all the symptoms. A decongestant can make you feel better but a medicine that treats all three symptoms can get you well. Yet, when it comes to mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety, standard mental health treatments do not necessarily address all the issues involved, particularly cultural issues. Standard mental health treatments make many people better and even well, but does everyone get well?

Jennifer was a successful 29-year-old Chinese American computer engineer in the Silicon Valley with one apparent weakness; she was indecisive (Should I bake cookies for my co-workers? Should I take on this project at work?) and needed repeated reassurance from her family that her decisions were correct. After experiencing heart palpitations, she went to a doctor who could not find a medical reason for the heart palpitations and sent her to psychologist. The psychologist told her that her heart palpitations were caused by anxiety associated with her dependence on her family and diagnosed her with obsessive-compulsive disorder and dependent personality disorder. The goals of treatment prescribed by the psychologist were for Jennifer to become more independent: (a) set personal boundaries with her family; (b) stop seeking their assurance and advice; and (c) stop second-guessing her own decisions. Jennifer tried not to contact her family for two weeks and she felt relieved and less anxious but began to miss her family and the heart palpitations resumed occasionally. She was better but not completely well.

A Chinese American coworker of Jennifer’s noticed that she seemed preoccupied and asked what was going on. Jennifer told her about seeing a psychologist and having mixed feelings on the attempts to set boundaries with her family. The coworker told Jennifer about a Japanese American psychologist who seemed to understand Asian American cultures. Jennifer decided to leave the first psychologist and try the Japanese American psychologist. The treatment began with controlled breathing exercises and Jennifer noticed that her heart palpitations became less frequent. The psychologist observed that seeking her family’s advice kept Jennifer connected with her family, who were concerned about “losing her” as she became more involved in her career. Similar to the first psychologist, this psychologist encouraged Jennifer to stop second-guessing her own decisions. But rather than stopping contact with her family, the psychologist had Jennifer meet once a week, not for unnecessary advice but to go grocery shopping together. Her heart palpitations stopped, she became more confident in her decisions, and she felt good about her relationship with her family. In other words, she got well.

The first psychologist offered the standard treatment – be your own person, make your own decisions, don’t rely on others. Jennifer began to feel better but this treatment didn’t help her relationships with her family or her heart palpitations. Wellness for Jennifer meant: (a) reduced heart palpitations; (b) making her own decisions; and (c) staying in touch with her family. The second psychologist offered a culturally-adapted treatment that promoted wellness by:

  • addressing physical health complaints which are an important component of distress for many Asian Americans and other cultural groups (Hunter & Schmidt, 2010; Ryder et al., 2008)
  • combining independence and interdependence, which are both important for many Asian Americans and other cultural groups (Nguyen & Benet-Martínez, 2007; Oyserman, Coon, & Kemmelmeier, 2002)

Science tells us that paying attention to culture can improve the effectiveness of mental health treatments. In a recent meta-analysis of 78 studies of nearly 14,000 people worldwide that will be published in the 50th Anniversary Issue of Behavior Therapy, culturally-adapted mental health treatments were more effective in reducing mental health problems than standard treatments that did not incorporate the client’s culture (Hall et al., 2016). A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple studies to determine the overall effectiveness of a treatment. People with African, Arab, Asian, Latino/a, and Native American ancestries in these 78 studies all benefitted from attention to their cultures.

Nearly 40% of the people in the United States are not White and the majority of children under age 5 are not White (U.S. Census Bureau, 2014). These are people who stand to benefit from culturally-adapted treatments. Yet, critics of cultural adaptations argue that they are more costly and complicated than standard treatments. Such criticisms have impeded research and development of culturally-adapted treatments. But the costs in not developing culturally-adapted treatments include unaddressed suffering for a large number of people and in some cases suicide. Standard mental health treatments help people get better, but incorporating culture into mental health treatments can help many people get well.

 

References:

Hall, G. C. N., Ibaraki, A. Y., Huang, E. R., Marti, C. N., & Stice, E. (2016). A meta-analysis of cultural adaptations of psychological interventions. Behavior Therapy. (Online version available here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005789416300806)

Hunter, L. R., & Schmidt, N. B. (2010). Anxiety psychopathology in African American adults: Literature review and development of an empirically informed sociocultural model. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 211-235. doi: 10.1037/a0018133

Nguyen, A. D., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2007). Biculturalism unpacked: Components, measurement, individual differences, and outcomes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 101-114. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00029.x

Oyserman, D., Coon, H., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–73. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.3

Ryder, A. G., Yang, J., Zhu, X., Yao, S., Yi, J., Heine, S. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2008). The cultural shaping of depression: Somatic symptoms in China, psychological symptoms in North America? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 300-313. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.2.300

U.S. Census Bureau (2014). A more diverse nation. Retrieved 9/20/16 from https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/newsroom/releases/2015/cb15-113_graphic.pdf

 

Biography:

Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, PhD, is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Oregon. He has authored over 100 publications on topics including Asian Americans and mental health. Dr. Hall is Past President of the Asian American Psychological Association and of the Society for the Study of Culture, Ethnicity, and Race.


Filed under: Culture, Ethnicity and Race, Health and Wellness Tagged: cultural adaptation, cultural competence, culturally adapted treatment, mental health, mental health care

Getting Better or Getting Well? How Culture Can Improve Your Health

man head silhouette with jigsaw

By Gordon Nagayama Hall, PhD (Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon)

If you had a cold, with a stuffy nose, sore throat, and headache, would you want a medicine that treated all the symptoms or just the stuffy nose? Most people would want the medicine that treated all the symptoms. A decongestant can make you feel better but a medicine that treats all three symptoms can get you well. Yet, when it comes to mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety, standard mental health treatments do not necessarily address all the issues involved, particularly cultural issues. Standard mental health treatments make many people better and even well, but does everyone get well?

Jennifer was a successful 29-year-old Chinese American computer engineer in the Silicon Valley with one apparent weakness; she was indecisive (Should I bake cookies for my co-workers? Should I take on this project at work?) and needed repeated reassurance from her family that her decisions were correct. After experiencing heart palpitations, she went to a doctor who could not find a medical reason for the heart palpitations and sent her to psychologist. The psychologist told her that her heart palpitations were caused by anxiety associated with her dependence on her family and diagnosed her with obsessive-compulsive disorder and dependent personality disorder. The goals of treatment prescribed by the psychologist were for Jennifer to become more independent: (a) set personal boundaries with her family; (b) stop seeking their assurance and advice; and (c) stop second-guessing her own decisions. Jennifer tried not to contact her family for two weeks and she felt relieved and less anxious but began to miss her family and the heart palpitations resumed occasionally. She was better but not completely well.

A Chinese American coworker of Jennifer’s noticed that she seemed preoccupied and asked what was going on. Jennifer told her about seeing a psychologist and having mixed feelings on the attempts to set boundaries with her family. The coworker told Jennifer about a Japanese American psychologist who seemed to understand Asian American cultures. Jennifer decided to leave the first psychologist and try the Japanese American psychologist. The treatment began with controlled breathing exercises and Jennifer noticed that her heart palpitations became less frequent. The psychologist observed that seeking her family’s advice kept Jennifer connected with her family, who were concerned about “losing her” as she became more involved in her career. Similar to the first psychologist, this psychologist encouraged Jennifer to stop second-guessing her own decisions. But rather than stopping contact with her family, the psychologist had Jennifer meet once a week, not for unnecessary advice but to go grocery shopping together. Her heart palpitations stopped, she became more confident in her decisions, and she felt good about her relationship with her family. In other words, she got well.

The first psychologist offered the standard treatment – be your own person, make your own decisions, don’t rely on others. Jennifer began to feel better but this treatment didn’t help her relationships with her family or her heart palpitations. Wellness for Jennifer meant: (a) reduced heart palpitations; (b) making her own decisions; and (c) staying in touch with her family. The second psychologist offered a culturally-adapted treatment that promoted wellness by:

  • addressing physical health complaints which are an important component of distress for many Asian Americans and other cultural groups (Hunter & Schmidt, 2010; Ryder et al., 2008)
  • combining independence and interdependence, which are both important for many Asian Americans and other cultural groups (Nguyen & Benet-Martínez, 2007; Oyserman, Coon, & Kemmelmeier, 2002)

Science tells us that paying attention to culture can improve the effectiveness of mental health treatments. In a recent meta-analysis of 78 studies of nearly 14,000 people worldwide that will be published in the 50th Anniversary Issue of Behavior Therapy, culturally-adapted mental health treatments were more effective in reducing mental health problems than standard treatments that did not incorporate the client’s culture (Hall et al., 2016). A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple studies to determine the overall effectiveness of a treatment. People with African, Arab, Asian, Latino/a, and Native American ancestries in these 78 studies all benefitted from attention to their cultures.

Nearly 40% of the people in the United States are not White and the majority of children under age 5 are not White (U.S. Census Bureau, 2014). These are people who stand to benefit from culturally-adapted treatments. Yet, critics of cultural adaptations argue that they are more costly and complicated than standard treatments. Such criticisms have impeded research and development of culturally-adapted treatments. But the costs in not developing culturally-adapted treatments include unaddressed suffering for a large number of people and in some cases suicide. Standard mental health treatments help people get better, but incorporating culture into mental health treatments can help many people get well.

 

References:

Hall, G. C. N., Ibaraki, A. Y., Huang, E. R., Marti, C. N., & Stice, E. (in press). A meta-analysis of cultural adaptations of psychological interventions. Behavior Therapy. (Online version available here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005789416300806)

Hunter, L. R., & Schmidt, N. B. (2010). Anxiety psychopathology in African American adults: Literature review and development of an empirically informed sociocultural model. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 211-235. doi: 10.1037/a0018133

Nguyen, A. D., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2007). Biculturalism unpacked: Components, measurement, individual differences, and outcomes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 101-114. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00029.x

Oyserman, D., Coon, H., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–73. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.3

Ryder, A. G., Yang, J., Zhu, X., Yao, S., Yi, J., Heine, S. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2008). The cultural shaping of depression: Somatic symptoms in China, psychological symptoms in North America? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 300-313. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.2.300

U.S. Census Bureau (2014). A more diverse nation. Retrieved 9/20/16 from https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/newsroom/releases/2015/cb15-113_graphic.pdf

 

Biography:

Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, PhD, is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Oregon. He has authored over 100 publications on topics including Asian Americans and mental health. Dr. Hall is Past President of the Asian American Psychological Association and of the Society for the Study of Culture, Ethnicity, and Race.


Filed under: Culture, Ethnicity and Race, Health and Wellness Tagged: cultural adaptation, cultural competence, culturally adapted treatment, mental health, mental health care

5 Ways to Teach Your Students about World Poverty

Erasing poverty

Jamie L. Franco-Zamudio, PhD (Associate Professor, Spring Hill College) with assistance from students, Paige E. Guillory and Claire M. Oswald

Although in observance since 1987, in 1992 the United Nations (UN) General Assembly adopted the resolution to designate October 17th as the “International Day for the Eradication of Poverty”. On this day, and throughout the year, the International Committee for October 17 encourages us to raise awareness about the effects of living in extreme poverty and to develop action plans to eradicate poverty on the local, national, and international level. In 2015, they called for actions that are focused on building a sustainable future. The call included one important point—that our strategies should be developed in solidarity with people living in poverty because their expertise is essential for creating plans that will primarily affect their communities.

I teach about issues of economic justice in many of my classes, but this is the first year that I will formally observe what is also known as World Poverty Day. As I was brainstorming different ways to teach about poverty across the globe, I realized it would be beneficial to enlist the assistance of two undergraduate students. Together we developed this list of resources and activities.

You might choose to cite these resources in lectures or use them as content for assignments. For example, when teaching about disseminating information to a broad audience I ask students to create infographics, fact sheets, or policy briefs. My student, Claire Oswald, created the one below.

wpdinfographic

Infographic by Claire Oswald: Healthcare and Poverty

 

1. Share these informational resources on global poverty

 

The website includes information about the goals of the initiative, and includes links to the 17 goals for sustainable development and the millennial goals for 2015 and beyond. There are links to fact sheets and informational videos on topics such as “Empowering Women”.  The bottom of the United Nations home page includes links to issues such as Zero Hunger Challenge and Refugees and Migrants.           

This report includes information about the effects of living in extreme poverty, outlines specific human rights, and lists the obligations of the international community to eliminate extreme poverty.

The website provides statistics describing what poor people think about poverty, illustrations of the poverty line, and graphs and charts illustrating the number of people living in poverty across the world.

The report includes recommendations to reduce prejudice and discrimination of people living in poverty and promote inclusion in the political process.

The website includes resources for developing partnerships, child labor, better working conditions, and improving living standards using local resources and employees.

This report illustrates the health and mental health outcomes for children living in poverty.

 

2. Screen these documentaries on global poverty

 

Poverty, Inc.

This is an excellent documentary describing how “charity” to impoverished countries is more paternalistic and self-serving than helpful. One reviewer, Peter Debruge, commented, “It all comes down to the old “give a man a fish” vs. “teach a man to fish” quandary, wherein donations provide a temporary fix, whereas training and help building connections to the world market could empower a way out.”

 

The True Cost

An excellent documentary describing the environmental, social, and psychological effects of “fast fashion.” A section of the film highlights the experiences of low-wage workers in Bangladesh.

 

Living on One Dollar a Day

This documentary illustrates what it is like to live on a dollar a day in rural Guatemala.

For a list of many other insightful documentaries about poverty, visit the Documentary Addict page.

 

3. Encourage your students to take action against poverty

  • Invite your students to sign a petition to end poverty
  • Provide students with links to volunteer at a local homeless shelter via the Homeless Shelter Directory.
  • Fundraise to provide a loan through Kiva to help someone start their own business.
  • Invite students to take action via the Results website, which provides links encourage legislators support policies to end world poverty.
  • Free Rice is an online “game” website that for points scored, rice is donated to feed the hungry.

 

4. Try these activities with your students so they can better understand poverty

  • Encourage your students to try to live on a limited budget by participating in the online challenge at Spent.
  • Spend the day participating in a poverty simulation.

 

5. Assign the following readings to your students

This book focuses on the work of Dr. Paul Farmer whose life calling was to provide healthcare to communities in need in Haiti, Cuba, Peru, and Russia. Dr. Farmer asserts, “The idea that some lives matter less is the root of all that is wrong with the world” and “For me, an area of moral clarity is: you’re in front of someone who’s suffering and you have the tools at your disposal to alleviate that suffering or even eradicate it, and you act.”

For more books about world poverty, visit The Borgen Project.

This paper by Dr. Heather Bullock is sponsored by the National Poverty Center. We encourage you to review the references for additional relevant articles.

This website includes links to resources, readings, and information regarding how to help.

 

Below, Paige Guillory, one of my students, provides a great example of her learning experiences regarding global poverty.

 

A Case of Service and Immersion: Paige Guillory Shares her Experiences

Immersion Trips

Paige has travelled to several different countries with the Spring Hill College International Service and Immersion Program (ISIP) and partners such as International Samaritan, Mustard Seed Communities, Hand in Hand Ministries, and Caribbean Social Immersion Program.

“After being very fortunate to travel internationally to experience global poverty and serve where you can, it is important to return home, tell the stories of those you met, and do what you can to give to those you met or serve your local community in similar ways. After traveling to the Dominican Republic (DR) and meeting Haitian migrant children at a shelter in the DR, our ISIP group returned home to share their stories, raise money for their shelter, and bring awareness to the problems surrounding immigration. We created a website to easily share what we experienced and what we planned to accomplish.”

 

Learning from Local Issues

“As important as it is to serve those in poverty globally, especially in very poor, underdeveloped countries, there is so much local poverty surrounding us that needs immediate attention as well.

For example, it is important to realize that every local tragedy, natural disaster, or devastating situation in a local community affects those living in poverty in very different, and usually more devastating, ways. In Louisiana, where the dangerous flooding that occurred in mid-August of 2016, thousands of families lost their homes, businesses, and possessions in a very quick few days. In looking at where the flooding caused the worse damage, many poor communities with lacking resources, the inability to safely evacuate, and unfortunate home locations near bayous, canals, and rivers suffered the most damage. It is a harsh reality to realize that those living in poverty are more at risk for losing their lives and possessions when disasters occur locally. Being aware of these setbacks should call us to rethink our education, healthcare, disaster relief, and political systems to better accommodate those who are at greater risk for failure and setbacks. Although not everyone was able to realize that the flooding in Louisiana affected those in poorer communities to a greater and more devastating degree, the community of south Louisiana and those who have come from out-of-state to help rebuild our community, provide support, and donate needed items have seen that Louisiana is a community that gives to our neighbors in times of need.”

You might choose to plan a weekend volunteer day. For example, the students at her college spent the day with NOLA Tree Project gutting four of the over 100,000 homes damaged in the flood.

wpdgraphic

Pictured: Paige Guillory taking down molding drywall

 

 

Author Biographies:

Jamie Franco-Zamudio, PhD, is an Associate Professor at Spring Hill College. Her current research addresses the benefits of experiential learning and service-learning for social justice outcomes. Franco-Zamudio is a member of the Governing Council of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) and is currently serving as Co-Chair of the SPSSI Teaching and Mentoring Committee. She is a member of the Board of Directors for Lifelines Counseling Services in Mobile, AL.

Paige Guillory is a senior student at Spring Hill College in Mobile, AL but originally from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. She is a member of Psi Chi International Honor Society and is currently studying Biology, Psychology, and Biochemistry. She plans to pursue a Medical Degree and Masters of Public Health in the hopes of becoming a physician.

Claire Oswald is senior health sciences major with a psychology minor at Spring Hill College. She plans to pursue a career in occupational therapy. She is a member of Psi Chi International Honor Society in Psychology and the American Medical Student Association. She has participated in many social justice endeavors, including the Ignatian Teach-In and 3 years of participation in the International Service Immersion Program.


Filed under: Poverty and Socioeconomic Status Tagged: International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, poverty, poverty reduction, student resources, teaching, World Poverty Day

Latinxs: Take Action to Stop HIV

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By Karen Nieves-Lugo, PhD, MPH (Postdoctoral Fellow at George Washington University)

October 15th is National Latinx AIDS Awareness Day, and this year’s theme is “We’ll Defeat AIDS con Ganas!” But why is it important to talk about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Latino community? Latinxs are disproportionally affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—the virus that causes AIDS. Our community represents 17% of the total U.S. population, but accounts for 21% of all new HIV infections and 21% of people living with HIV.1 In addition, research shows that Latinxs are more likely to receive late diagnosis and HIV care compared to other races and ethnicities.2

Benita Ramírez3, a Honduran activist and poet living with HIV, wrote:

I dance

the sound of the wind

lifts my hair

of my old spirit

I learned to succeed.

Drawing inspiration from the title of Benita’s poem “Triumph,” the pathway to prevent new HIV infections is early detection and treatment of the disease in order to avert heath complications. By detecting HIV early and connecting to care, people living with HIV can have better quality of life and decrease the risk of transmission of HIV by adhering to treatment. While testing and treatment are steps an individual must decide to take on their own, we as a community should provide support wherever possible. Together we can make a difference.

What kind of action can we do?

Let’s start talking about HIV with our family, partner(s), friends, peers, and neighbors. Educating ourselves about HIV–how it is transmitted, how to practice safer sex, and how to use condoms–not only prevents new infections, but also empowers Latinxs to protect themselves. It’s also important to talk about HIV prevention with our youth because they are one of the most vulnerable groups in our community. Let’s talk to our teens about the ways to have safer sex to decrease their risk of getting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Fight stigma and discrimination. Negative attitudes about HIV can discourage Latinxs from seeking testing and treatment services. Some people avoid getting tested for HIV out of fear of being rejected or discriminated against. As a Latina, I know that a central value in our community is to take care of our loved ones and that should not exclude those living with HIV. Supporting your loved ones to seek testing, prevention, and treatment services is a way of honoring them and our community. If you are a leader in your neighborhood, start a dialogue about HIV and encourage your community to get tested. The support from our family, friends, peers, and community can ease the potential physical and emotional difficulties of living with HIV. By destigmatizing HIV and encouraging community members to get tested, we can make a difference in early detection and treatment. These are the most effective strategies to stop HIV in our community.

Ask to be tested for HIV. Raising our voices to get tested for HIV is an important prevention measure, even when we do not recognize having any risk factor (e.g. multiple partners, drug use, having unprotected sex). Research shows that over a third of Latinxs (36%) were tested for HIV late compared to 31% of Black and 32% of White populations4. Although receiving an HIV diagnosis is frightening, an early detection brings the opportunity to take care of ourselves preventing health complications and transmitting HIV to others.

You can talk to your healthcare provider about getting tested or visit community organizations that offer free and anonymous HIV testing.  Many of these organizations have staffs who speak English and Spanish, understand our culture, and offer information about HIV prevention and access to care regardless of your immigration status.

Take action if you are HIV positive. When living with HIV, it is important to remain in regular care. As any other chronic disease (e.g. diabetes, hypertension) having regular treatment improves the quality of life, allowing people to live longer, healthier lives. Using medication as directed by your healthcare provider is beneficial for your health and reduces the risk of HIV transmission to others.

Together we can make a difference. In 2010, President Obama signed a National HIV/AIDS Strategy that outlines the principles, priorities, and actions needed to win the battle against HIV. The goals of this plan are: reducing HIV, incidence, increasing access to care and optimizing health outcomes and reducing HIV-related health disparities5. Some of the strategies to achieve these goals are: increase HIV testing, adhere to HIV treatment and remain in care. We need to take advantage of that strategy and advocate for our community in order to fight against HIV. History has shown that when we are united as a community we can be successful, overcome obstacles, and gain respect through our work and social actions. I am confident that in this occasion we can also win the battle against HIV, stopping new HIV infections and improving the health of those Latinxs living with HIV. We have the power to change our history and make a difference in our community.

We want to hear from you – Tell us in the comments:

  • What we can do as a community to fight against HIV?
  • What do you do to encourage other Latinxs seeking testing and treatment services for HIV?
  • What tools and strategies do you have to manage being HIV positive?

Acknowledgements: Thank you to Veronica Pinho and Maria Cecilia Zea for their encouragement in the development of this blog.

Biography:

Karen Nieves-Lugo, PHD, MPH, was born and raised in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. She obtained her doctoral degree in Psychology at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus and has a master’s degree in Public Health from the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus. She is a postdoctoral fellow at George Washington University, Department of Psychology. Dr. Nieves-Lugo’s research focuses on health disparities, aging, sexuality, and chronic diseases specifically examining the role of cultural, psychological and behavioral factors significant to HIV/AIDS. She has worked with Latino populations in research focused on: the experiences of sexual migration among Dominican gay men; the prevalence of eating disorders and body image among Puerto Rican college men; the relationship of gender roles and sexuality in the prevention of HIV infection among Puerto Rican heterosexual men; and the psychological and behavioral factors related to adherence to HIV medication among Puerto Rican men. She is a principal investigator in a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service postdoctoral fellowship (F32) award funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, where she is examining the relationship of depression and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and drug use) with physical function over time in HIV-infected veterans compared to uninfected veterans in VACS. Dr. Nieves-Lugo is a member of the District of Columbia Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), the MSM and Sexual Minorities CFAR Scientific Interest Group, the Mid-Atlantic CFAR Consortium of Latinos and HIV, the Physical Function Working Group, Veterans Aging Cohort Study, and the American Psychological Association divisions 20 and 44.

 

References:

1 Center of Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Today’s HIV/AIDS epidemic. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/factsheets/TodaysEpidemic-508.pdf.

2 Dennis, A. M., Napravnik, S., Seña, A. C., & Eron, J. J. (2011). Late entry to HIV care among Latinos compared with non-Latinos in a southeastern US cohort. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 53(5), 480-487.

3 Evers, L. (2010) “I´m black, I´m a woman and I am HIV positive. But I am going to make a difference”. Retrieved from https://www.trocaire.org/blogs/make-a-difference.

4 “Latinos and HIV/AIDS”. (2014, April 15). Retrieved from http://kff.org/hivaids/fact-sheet/latinos-and-hivaids/

5 “HIV/AIDS National Strategies”. (2010, July). Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/NHAS.pdf


Filed under: AIDS, Culture, Ethnicity and Race, Health Disparities Tagged: aids, health disparities, HIV, hiv prevention, HIV testing, HIV treatment, HIV/AIDS research, Latina, Latino, Latinx, National Latino HIV/AIDS Awareness Day

How Can We Help Survivors of Domestic Violence Struggling with Homelessness?

Worried Child

By Stephanie Hargrove (Clinical Psychology Doctoral Student, George Mason University)

It is an unfortunate reality that many women and children who are able to escape their abuser end up homeless. A recent survey found that 17 percent of cities cited domestic violence as the primary cause of family homelessness (U.S. Conference of Mayors, 2014). This prevalent issue is something that many people do not realize is happening. Here are some of the myths about domestic violence and homelessness that need to be dispelled.

 

Myth Busters:

Only women can experience domestic violence

  • In fact, domestic violence can happen to anyone, men, women and children. The U.S. Department of Justice defines domestic violence as “a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person”. Domestic violence is abuse that occurs in the home by a family member or intimate partner. Therefore, even children who are abused by their parents experience domestic violence.
  • However, it is true that DV survivors are primarily women. More than 1 in 3 women (35.6%) and more than 1 in 4 men (28.5%) in the United States have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime.

 

People who are experiencing DV can leave anytime they want

People end up homeless or in poverty because of their own bad decisions

People who are affluent now, will never end up homeless

  • There are many survivors of DV who are affluent. There are also several cases of women who lost their homes and finances because their abuser took it all and they did what was necessary to survive.

 

So what does homelessness due to domestic violence look like in real life?

Imagine you have endured days, months, or even years of abuse at the hands of someone you love. One day you decide that it is no longer safe to remain in the same home as this person. Now what?

  • If you are married to this person, you made a commitment to love and honor this person for the rest of your life.
  • If you have children with this person you do not want the children to have to grow up without their other parent in their life.
  • If you are dating, you love and care about this person, you made plans with them and planned your future together.
  • If it is your parent, you are supposed to obey them, you rely on them for love, advice, support, and protection.

Imagine that despite the deep investment you have in this person, you decide that you must leave. Now what?

  • You have to figure out where you would go and how you would end the relationship – all the while knowing that this person has threatened you and your family if you were to leave.

Let’s say you manage to escape your abuser’s home unharmed. Now where do you go?

  • Your abuser made sure to isolate you from the rest of your family so they are not too sympathetic to your situation.
  • Even if you do manage to find a family member to stay with, it will most likely be temporary and it is not always safe to stay in places where your abuser knows they could find you.
  • So what’s another option? Maybe you could stay in a hotel. Well, that could work but that option will get pricey quickly. It’s not a long term solution.
  • How about find a new place to live? That is a long term solution but that takes money and time. If you have to work during the day it can be very difficult to search for a new home.
  • If you are living in poverty, the costly options are not options at all.
  • If you are middle class or affluent, all of your money may not be available to you. Imagine that you share a bank account with your abuser, they may move the money so that you can’t leave. They might have put their name on the house the car and other items you both own so that you cannot legally try to take those things.
  • So now you are at the point where you’ve left your abuser, you’ve used up your immediate housing resources (e.g., a hotel for a couple nights, staying with a family member for a week or two, searching for a new place) and you need a place to go. Now you start reaching out to domestic violence shelters because there is no other option for safe housing.

When you call the DV agency it is still not guaranteed that you will get housing.

  • They ask you if you have a son over the age of 13. You do and they tell you unfortunately your son will not be able to stay with you in the shelter.
  • Or you call and find out that their shelter is at capacity.

Let’s say you are able to find a domestic violence shelter that will be able to house you and your children. Now you are able to utilize the services available in the shelter.

  • However, you now have a curfew, they have limited food options, you cannot tell anyone the location of your residence, you have strict visitor rules and requirements, and you have to check in with someone regularly.
  • This is a huge adjustment, it may even be slightly traumatizing to be in another controlling environment. What are your options now?
  • Pretty much the streets, a homeless shelter with less rules but no guaranteed protection or services for survivors, or stay in the DV shelter where you will at least be safe until you no longer need their services.

As a former domestic violence shelter volunteer and hotline counselor, I have witnessed people deal with every scenario in the previously presented hypothetical situation. One of the most unfortunate things I have come to realize is that in the midst of escaping an abuser, someone who is limited financially has very few good options available to them. It is also unfortunate that some of the policies put in place to protect survivors can end up making it more difficult for them to seek services.

There are several laws and regulations in place for domestic violence shelters. The regulations vary by state but many shelters across the country are tasked with the same obligations to ensure the safety of the residents. These regulations include keeping the shelter location secret, not allowing males in many of the shelters (even if it is an older son of the woman escaping abuse), enforcing a curfew, limiting visitors, and they typically are instructed to keep close tabs on the residents.

So not only does the person have to deal with the severe psychological trauma stemming from the abuse they endured from a loved one, they also have to deal with losing their home, sometimes their job, friends, and family. On top of all of those things, the rules in the shelter might make them feel like prisoners. Sometimes even with the best intentions of helping to protect survivors, shelter policies may end up further traumatizing residents by restricting their power. That type of complex trauma experience can have extremely negative consequences on survivors .

 

How You Can Help

 

If you want to change policies:

First of all, get active in state and local elections. Know your member of congress and your senator. Find out what their plan is to address domestic violence and homelessness, if they have a plan at all. Then gather constituents and make your case for policy development and reform for survivors of domestic violence. Do the same for national level policies.

If you are a provider who works with survivors of IPV:

Know the signs of abuse. Support your client whether they want to leave their abuser or not. Be prepared to provide resources information such as shelters, crime victims fund, trauma counseling, how to get restraining orders, and how to help their children cope. Allow the survivor to make decisions for their own lives. Most of all advocate for the empowerment of survivors. Make sure to be mindful of power dynamics when working with survivors.

If you have never thought about this issue:

Spread the word about this issue. Help dispel the common myths. Learn more about the reality of homeless survivors of abuse. If there is someone you know who is dealing with abuse in their home, be there to support them in any way you can. Even if it is just being an empathetic listener.

 

 

Resources:

 

The National Domestic Violence Hotline

1-800-799-7233 (SAFE)

http://www.ndvh.org/

 

National Coalition for the Homeless

1-202-737-6444

http://www.nationalhomeless.org/

 

National Dating Abuse Helpline

1-866-331-9474

http://www.loveisrespect.org/

 

Americans Overseas Domestic Violence Crisis Center

International Toll-Free (24/7)

1-866-USWOMEN (879-6636)

http://www.866uswomen.org/

 

National Child Abuse Hotline/Childhelp

1-800-4-A-CHILD (1-800-422-4453)

http://www.childhelp.org/

 

National Resource Center on Domestic Violence

1-800-537-2238

http://www.nrcdv.org/ and http://www.vawnet.org/

 

National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health

1-312-726-7020 ext. 2011

www.nationalcenterdvtraumamh.org

 

 

Biography:

Stephanie Hargrove is a second year clinical psychology doctoral student at George Mason University. She is an alumna of Howard University and has lived in the DC area for nearly 6 years. Stephanie has a passion for advocacy and community service. She has served as an advocate in domestic violence shelters, on the community service committee of the Greater Washington Urban League’s young professional chapter, and as a rape crisis hotline counselor. Stephanie’s research interests are focused on social justice, women’s empowerment, and client centered practices for women who have experienced gender based violence such as intimate partner violence, rape, and human trafficking. Her clinical interests are trauma and personality disorders. Stephanie hopes to utilize her research to inform her clinical work, develop interventions, and influence policy.

 


Filed under: Violence, Women and Girls Tagged: domestic abuse, domestic violence, homeles, homeless families, homeless shelters, homelessness, intimate partner violence

How Can We Help Survivors of Domestic Violence Struggling with Homelessness?

Worried Child

By Stephanie Hargrove (Clinical Psychology Doctoral Student, George Mason University)

It is an unfortunate reality that many women and children who are able to escape their abuser end up homeless. A recent survey found that 17 percent of cities cited domestic violence as the primary cause of family homelessness (U.S. Conference of Mayors, 2014). This prevalent issue is something that many people do not realize is happening. Here are some of the myths about domestic violence and homelessness that need to be dispelled.

 

Myth Busters:

Only women can experience domestic violence

  • In fact, domestic violence can happen to anyone, men, women and children. The U.S. Department of Justice defines domestic violence as “a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person”. Domestic violence is abuse that occurs in the home by a family member or intimate partner. Therefore, even children who are abused by their parents experience domestic violence.
  • However, it is true that DV survivors are primarily women. More than 1 in 3 women (35.6%) and more than 1 in 4 men (28.5%) in the United States have experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime.

 

People who are experiencing DV can leave anytime they want

People end up homeless or in poverty because of their own bad decisions

People who are affluent now, will never end up homeless

  • There are many survivors of DV who are affluent. There are also several cases of women who lost their homes and finances because their abuser took it all and they did what was necessary to survive.

 

So what does homelessness due to domestic violence look like in real life?

Imagine you have endured days, months, or even years of abuse at the hands of someone you love. One day you decide that it is no longer safe to remain in the same home as this person. Now what?

  • If you are married to this person, you made a commitment to love and honor this person for the rest of your life.
  • If you have children with this person you do not want the children to have to grow up without their other parent in their life.
  • If you are dating, you love and care about this person, you made plans with them and planned your future together.
  • If it is your parent, you are supposed to obey them, you rely on them for love, advice, support, and protection.

Imagine that despite the deep investment you have in this person, you decide that you must leave. Now what?

  • You have to figure out where you would go and how you would end the relationship – all the while knowing that this person has threatened you and your family if you were to leave.

Let’s say you manage to escape your abuser’s home unharmed. Now where do you go?

  • Your abuser made sure to isolate you from the rest of your family so they are not too sympathetic to your situation.
  • Even if you do manage to find a family member to stay with, it will most likely be temporary and it is not always safe to stay in places where your abuser knows they could find you.
  • So what’s another option? Maybe you could stay in a hotel. Well, that could work but that option will get pricey quickly. It’s not a long term solution.
  • How about find a new place to live? That is a long term solution but that takes money and time. If you have to work during the day it can be very difficult to search for a new home.
  • If you are living in poverty, the costly options are not options at all.
  • If you are middle class or affluent, all of your money may not be available to you. Imagine that you share a bank account with your abuser, they may move the money so that you can’t leave. They might have put their name on the house the car and other items you both own so that you cannot legally try to take those things.
  • So now you are at the point where you’ve left your abuser, you’ve used up your immediate housing resources (e.g., a hotel for a couple nights, staying with a family member for a week or two, searching for a new place) and you need a place to go. Now you start reaching out to domestic violence shelters because there is no other option for safe housing.

When you call the DV agency it is still not guaranteed that you will get housing.

  • They ask you if you have a son over the age of 13. You do and they tell you unfortunately your son will not be able to stay with you in the shelter.
  • Or you call and find out that their shelter is at capacity.

Let’s say you are able to find a domestic violence shelter that will be able to house you and your children. Now you are able to utilize the services available in the shelter.

  • However, you now have a curfew, they have limited food options, you cannot tell anyone the location of your residence, you have strict visitor rules and requirements, and you have to check in with someone regularly.
  • This is a huge adjustment, it may even be slightly traumatizing to be in another controlling environment. What are your options now?
  • Pretty much the streets, a homeless shelter with less rules but no guaranteed protection or services for survivors, or stay in the DV shelter where you will at least be safe until you no longer need their services.

As a former domestic violence shelter volunteer and hotline counselor, I have witnessed people deal with every scenario in the previously presented hypothetical situation. One of the most unfortunate things I have come to realize is that in the midst of escaping an abuser, someone who is limited financially has very few good options available to them. It is also unfortunate that some of the policies put in place to protect survivors can end up making it more difficult for them to seek services.

There are several laws and regulations in place for domestic violence shelters. The regulations vary by state but many shelters across the country are tasked with the same obligations to ensure the safety of the residents. These regulations include keeping the shelter location secret, not allowing males in many of the shelters (even if it is an older son of the woman escaping abuse), enforcing a curfew, limiting visitors, and they typically are instructed to keep close tabs on the residents.

So not only does the person have to deal with the severe psychological trauma stemming from the abuse they endured from a loved one, they also have to deal with losing their home, sometimes their job, friends, and family. On top of all of those things, the rules in the shelter might make them feel like prisoners. Sometimes even with the best intentions of helping to protect survivors, shelter policies may end up further traumatizing residents by restricting their power. That type of complex trauma experience can have extremely negative consequences on survivors .

 

How You Can Help

 

If you want to change policies:

First of all, get active in state and local elections. Know your member of congress and your senator. Find out what their plan is to address domestic violence and homelessness, if they have a plan at all. Then gather constituents and make your case for policy development and reform for survivors of domestic violence. Do the same for national level policies.

If you are a provider who works with survivors of IPV:

Know the signs of abuse. Support your client whether they want to leave their abuser or not. Be prepared to provide resources information such as shelters, crime victims fund, trauma counseling, how to get restraining orders, and how to help their children cope. Allow the survivor to make decisions for their own lives. Most of all advocate for the empowerment of survivors. Make sure to be mindful of power dynamics when working with survivors.

If you have never thought about this issue:

Spread the word about this issue. Help dispel the common myths. Learn more about the reality of homeless survivors of abuse. If there is someone you know who is dealing with abuse in their home, be there to support them in any way you can. Even if it is just being an empathetic listener.

 

 

Resources:

 

The National Domestic Violence Hotline

1-800-799-7233 (SAFE)

http://www.ndvh.org/

 

National Coalition for the Homeless

1-202-737-6444

http://www.nationalhomeless.org/

 

National Dating Abuse Helpline

1-866-331-9474

http://www.loveisrespect.org/

 

Americans Overseas Domestic Violence Crisis Center

International Toll-Free (24/7)

1-866-USWOMEN (879-6636)

http://www.866uswomen.org/

 

National Child Abuse Hotline/Childhelp

1-800-4-A-CHILD (1-800-422-4453)

http://www.childhelp.org/

 

National Resource Center on Domestic Violence

1-800-537-2238

http://www.nrcdv.org/ and http://www.vawnet.org/

 

National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health

1-312-726-7020 ext. 2011

www.nationalcenterdvtraumamh.org

 

 

Biography:

Stephanie Hargrove is a second year clinical psychology doctoral student at George Mason University. She is an alumna of Howard University and has lived in the DC area for nearly 6 years. Stephanie has a passion for advocacy and community service. She has served as an advocate in domestic violence shelters, on the community service committee of the Greater Washington Urban League’s young professional chapter, and as a rape crisis hotline counselor. Stephanie’s research interests are focused on social justice, women’s empowerment, and client centered practices for women who have experienced gender based violence such as intimate partner violence, rape, and human trafficking. Her clinical interests are trauma and personality disorders. Stephanie hopes to utilize her research to inform her clinical work, develop interventions, and influence policy.

 


Filed under: Violence, Women and Girls Tagged: domestic abuse, domestic violence, homeles, homeless families, homeless shelters, homelessness, intimate partner violence

What Can We Do to Prevent the Abuse of Children with Disabilities?

Cute girl with painted hand

By Elizabeth Mazur, PhD (Associate Professor of Psychology, Penn State University)

In February 2016, Ethan Okula, a 10 year-old child in foster care for three years, died from a bowel obstruction after numerous adults neglected to drive him to the hospital emergency room or call 911. In many ways, this tragedy is no surprise; Ethan embodied many known risk factors for child neglect and abuse as described by columnist Mike Newall of the Philadelphia Inquirer on July 18, 2016.

Although we do not know how Ethan communicated his needs, we do know that Ethan suffered intellectual, auditory, and visual impairments as well as chronic medical problems, including respiratory problems and a serious bowel condition that lead to his death. Before his move to foster care under the “protection” of DHS, his father beat Ethan and denied him access to his breathing machine. At age 7, Ethan was placed in foster care.

Children with multiple disabilities are at increased risk for maltreatment, particularly neglect and physical and emotional abuse.  The risk is even higher for children like Ethan with modest to severe speech and language disorders.  Children with disabilities are also more than twice as likely to experience emotional neglect as children without disabilities. Newall also noted  that two school staffers were negligent in not reporting the verbal abuse that they witnessed Ethan endure when his foster mother’s friend picked him up from school.

Where does APA stand on preventing maltreatment of children with disabilities?

In 1991, APA declared that development of a national strategy to prevent and treat child abuse and neglect was of the highest importance and that psychologists can and should contribute substantially to such a national effort.

In 2003, members of APA’s Committee on Disability Issues in Psychology (CDIP) chose to reinforce that emphasis with a specific resolution on the maltreatment of children with disabilities. During the past two years, former and current members of CDIP have updated the resolution with both current research and additional resolutions derived from new research information.

To prevent tragedies such as Ethan’s, CDIP recommends:

  • Development of enhanced disability-relevant training for CPS (Child Protective Service) workers and for all mandated reporters of suspected child abuse or neglect.
  • Ensuring that all programs for maltreated children and their families must be disability accessible.
  • Collaborations between professionals so that all personnel, including foster care workers and educators, such as those at Ethan’s school, become aware of the special needs of maltreated children with disabilities.

While the prevention of child abuse is almost universally proclaimed to be an important social policy, surprisingly little work has been done to investigate the effectiveness of preventive interventions. Most prevention efforts for child maltreatment focus on victims and perpetrators without addressing the root causes of the problem, especially as that relates to children with disabilities.

Psychological science suggests that

  • successfully tackling poverty,
  • improving parents’ educational levels and employment opportunities, and
  • increasing the availability and quality of childcare

can significantly reduce rates of child abuse and neglect.

Research from several countries in Western Europe, Canada, Colombia, and parts of Asia and the Pacific indicates that the availability of high-quality, early-childhood programs may offset social and economic inequalities and improve child outcomes. Unfortunately, however, only a few countries have legal provisions covering all forms of violence against children.

Also, lack of coordination between different government departments and between authorities at the national and local level has led to the fragmented implementation of measures that could protect children. CDIP strongly recommends that all interested parties read the new revised resolution and take to heart its recommendations – for the good of the children.

Biography:

Dr. Elizabeth Mazur is in her third year as a member of the APA Committee on Disability Issues in Psychology and is Chair of the Instructional Resource Award Committee of the Society for Teaching in Psychology (Div. 2, APA). She received her PhD in Developmental Psychology from the University of Michigan, and is presently an associate professor of psychology at Pennsylvania State University, Greater Allegheny.  Most of her research publications and presentations focus on family stress and coping, especially as regards to parental physical disability, child emotional disability, dating with disabilities, and parenting, as well as on emerging and older adults on the Internet.

 

 


Filed under: Children and Youth, Disability Issues Tagged: abuse of children with disabilties, child abuse, child maltreatment, child neglect, children with disabilities, maltreatment of children with disabilities, neglect

Are You Guilty of Positive Ageism?

blog-positive-ageism

By Sharron Hinchliff, PhD (Senior Lecturer, University of Sheffield UK)

Every year, on October 1st,  we celebrate the International Day of Older Persons. The theme for 2016 is ‘Take a Stand against Ageism.’

What is ageism?

Ageism is the term used to describe prejudice towards and/or discrimination against an individual based on their age. It is rooted in stereotyping, where we cluster perceived traits together and make assumptions based on social categories. Its effects can be powerful and damaging.

Ageism against older people is widespread, and in Western countries we hear about:

  • people not being allowed to serve on a jury after age 70,
  • older patients not being given the same advice about a health condition as their younger counterparts,
  • the fewer opportunities to progress at work once one is past the age of 50, and
  • the older woman who is unlikely to be believed when she reports her sexual assault.

These are just a few examples.

People are treated differently because of their (older) age on a regular basis, and we are not always attuned to it. Ageism is taken for granted so much so that we may not even notice it when it is happening. It is something that can affect us all and is more tolerated than racism and sexism, with many arguing that it is ‘socially-condoned’ (North & Fiske, 2012).

Ageism can affect young people, but it is mainly thought about in relation to old people. And because it is a form of discrimination and prejudice, it can be negative or positive. However, we rarely hear about the latter and as a consequence few recognize that ageism has this alternative side.

What is positive ageism or ‘sageism’?

You may have heard the saying ‘the older the wiser’? It connects with stereotypes of older people as having gained wisdom through their longevity and life experiences (Palmore, 1999), and has been described as ‘sageism’ (Minichiello, Browne & Kendig, 2000: 268):

“With sageism, people interact with older people as venerated elders who are respected for their knowledge and experience. There is potential for negative effects, however, if the elder cannot meet such expectations.”  

They go on to describe how, in their study, older participants felt that they were being sought out for their wisdom and listened to more. However, older people did not always enjoy this ‘unexpected respect’ as it created a pressure when they could not live up to these expectations but did not want to let the younger people down.

Indeed, Jill Chonody (2016) argues that positive stereotypes of older people

‘may appear to be emphatic, but they are actually paternalistic in nature and support ageist behaviours, which can be detrimental to older adults’ (p.208).

She uses the example of asking older people for advice (a positive ageism item on the Relating to Older People scale):

“There is nothing about age per se that makes individuals better conversationalists or even better at giving good advice. Furthermore, if we replaced old peoplewith another social categorization, such as gay men, these statements would be somewhat laughable (re: I enjoy conversations with gay men because they are gay).” (Chonody & Teater 2016: 12)

Some academics note the link between positive ageing and positive ageism. Positive ageing grew out of a dissatisfaction with ageing being portrayed negatively, and thus it challenges the ageing-as-decline narrative. But, it has an unexpected consequence as it can become a form of ageism in itself. Sally Chivers (2003) applies this argument to older women’s bodies and physical appearance, telling us that positive ageism occurs through the process of promoting an impossible youthfulness and a denial of bodily decline. This is damaging because, as above, it forms an expectation that older women cannot live up to.

The same is happening with regard to older people and sexual activity. In my own work, I have seen a shift over the past few years from older people being viewed as asexual to sexually agentic. By challenging the asexual stereotype, an unintended effect was the creation of a new stereotype where all older people are expected to be sexually active if they are to age well. A failure to maintain sexual agency/autonomy is perceived as submitting to old age.

So, while positive ageism can be positive because it celebrates rather than denigrates older age, it can be detrimental too. In whatever form ageism takes, positive or negative, there is a risk that it does more to reinforce inequality than address it. 

 

References:

Chivers, S. (2003). From old women to older women: Contemporary culture and women’s narratives. USA: Ohio State University Press.

Chonody, J.M. (2016). Positive and negative ageism: The role of benevolent and hostile sexism. Journal of Women and Social Work, 31(2), 207-218.

Chonody, J. M., & Teater, B. (2016). Why do I dread looking old?: A test of social identity theory, terror management theory, and the double standard of aging. Journal of Women and Aging, 28(2), 112-126.

Minichiello, V., Browne, J., & Kendig, H. (2000). Perceptions and consequences of ageism: Views of older people. Ageing and Society, 20(03), 253-278.

North, M. S., & Fiske, S. T. (2012). An inconvenienced youth? Ageism and its potential intergenerational roots. Psychological Bulletin, 138(5), 982.

Palmore, E. (1999). Ageism: Negative and positive. New York: Springer.

 

Biography:

Sharron Hinchliff, PhD, is Senior Lecturer at the School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Sheffield UK. She has a BMedSci (Hons) and a PhD in psychology. Her research spans the areas of ageing, gender and sexual/reproductive health, as well as the psychology of health and health care. Sharron is co-editing the forthcoming book ‘Addressing the sexual rights of older people: Theory, policy and practice’ which is due for publication in 2017. For further details about Sharron’s work, see sharronhinchliff.com.

Image source: Flickr user Nick Moralee via Creative Commons


Filed under: Aging Tagged: ageism, discrimination, positive ageism, prejudice, sageism, stereotypes, stereotyping, stress