Monthly Archives: August 2013

Quantification of Ethyl Glucuronide in Hair: Effect of Milling on Extraction Efficiency

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  1. Bettina Mönch,
  2. Roland Becker* and
  3. Irene Nehls
  1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin, Germany
  1. *Corresponding author: Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Strasse 11, D-12489, Berlin, Germany. Tel: +49-30-81041121; E-mail: roland.becker{at}bam.de
  • Received January 2, 2013.
  • Revision requested February 25, 2013.
  • Revision received April 9, 2013.
  • Accepted April 12, 2013.

Abstract

Aim: The objective of the study was to provide conclusive evidence for the effect of particle size reduction as by milling on the extractable content of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) of hair samples. Methods: A number of real case hair samples and two pooled hair materials with EtG contents in the range of 10–30 pg/mg were systematically compared with regard to the extraction yield of EtG after cutting to 2–3 mm length and pulverization with a ball mill. After the respective treatment the samples were submitted to aqueous extraction followed by quantification of EtG using HPLC-MS/MS. Results: It was unequivocally demonstrated that milling of hair samples prior to aqueous extraction significantly increases the extractable EtG content compared with cut hair. The effect ranged between 137 and 230% and was seen to occur regardless of the extent of pulverization. Cooling of samples was not necessary to prevent partial degradation of EtG during the grinding procedure. Conclusion: The options currently employed at choice in analytical practice (cutting or milling) were seen to significantly affect the extractable amount of EtG in hair. This is suspected to influence the degree of equivalence of quantification results obtained in different laboratories as well as their respective classification of a test subject's drinking behaviour on the basis of currently recommended cut-off values.

Disclaimer: Please note that abstracts for content published before 1996 were created through digital scanning and may therefore not exactly replicate the text of the original print issues. All efforts have been made to ensure accuracy, but the Publisher will not be held responsible for any remaining inaccuracies. If you require any further clarification, please contact our Customer Services Department.

Relationship Between Alcohol Intake and Lipid Accumulation Product in Middle-aged Men

  1. Ichiro Wakabayashi*
  1. Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Mukogawa-cho 1-1, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan
  1. *Corresponding author: Tel.: +81-798-45-6561; Fax: +81-798-45-6563; E-mail: wakabaya{at}hyo-med.ac.jp
  • Received November 15, 2012.
  • Revision requested January 7, 2013.
  • Revision received March 4, 2013.
  • Accepted March 12, 2013.

Aims: Lipid accumulation product (LAP), defined as a product of waist circumference and triglycerides, has recently been proposed as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how LAP is associated with alcohol drinking. Methods: Subjects were 21,378 men aged 35–60 years and they were divided by alcohol intake into non-, light (<22 g ethanol/day), heavy (≥22 and <44 g ethanol/day) and very heavy (≥44 g ethanol/day) drinkers. Relationships between alcohol intake and LAP were analyzed by using multivariate analyses with adjustment for age, smoking and habitual exercise. Results: Log-transformed LAP levels in light drinkers and very heavy drinkers were significantly (P < 0.01) lower and higher, respectively, than the level in non-drinkers, and the levels were comparable in non- and heavy drinkers (non-drinkers, 1.335 ± 0.005; light drinkers, 1.290 ± 0.009; heavy drinkers, 1.348 ± 0.005 and very heavy drinkers, 1.414 ± 0.006). The inverse association of alcohol intake with LAP was more prominent in smokers and subjects without regular exercise than in non-smokers and subjects with regular exercise, respectively, while the positive association of alcohol with LAP was more prominent in non-smokers than in smokers. Odds ratio for hyperglycemia of subjects with vs. subjects without high LAP was significantly higher than a reference level of 1.00, and this association was not different among the four alcohol groups. Conclusion: There is a J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and LAP, which is confounded by smoking and habitual exercise.

Metabolic Abnormalities in Lobar and Subcortical Brain Regions of Abstinent Polysubstance Users: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

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  1. Christoph Abé1,2,
  2. Anderson Mon1,2,
  3. Michael E. Hoefer1,2,
  4. Timothy C. Durazzo1,2,
  5. David L. Pennington1,2,
  6. Thomas P. Schmidt1,2 and
  7. Dieter J. Meyerhoff1,2,*
  1. 1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
  2. 2Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
  1. *Corresponding author: Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, 114M, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA. Tel.: +1-415-221-4810; Fax: +1-415-668-2864; E-mail: dieter.meyerhoff{at}ucsf.edu
  • Received February 6, 2013.
  • Revision requested March 19, 2013.
  • Revision received May 22, 2013.
  • Accepted May 24, 2013.

Abstract

Aims: The aim of the study was to explore neurometabolic and associated cognitive characteristics of patients with polysubstance use (PSU) in comparison with patients with predominant alcohol use using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods: Brain metabolite concentrations were examined in lobar and subcortical brain regions of three age-matched groups: 1-month-abstinent alcohol-dependent PSU, 1-month-abstinent individuals dependent on alcohol alone (ALC) and light drinking controls (CON). Neuropsychological testing assessed cognitive function. Results: While CON and ALC had similar metabolite levels, persistent metabolic abnormalities (primarily higher myo-inositol) were present in temporal gray matter, cerebellar vermis and lenticular nuclei of PSU. Moreover, lower cortical gray matter concentration of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate within PSU correlated with higher cocaine (but not alcohol) use quantities and with a reduced cognitive processing speed. Conclusions: These metabolite group differences reflect cellular/astroglial injury and/or dysfunction in alcohol-dependent PSU. Associations of other metabolite concentrations with neurocognitive performance suggest their functional relevance. The metabolic alterations in PSU may represent polydrug abuse biomarkers and/or potential targets for pharmacological and behavioral PSU-specific treatment.

Disclaimer: Please note that abstracts for content published before 1996 were created through digital scanning and may therefore not exactly replicate the text of the original print issues. All efforts have been made to ensure accuracy, but the Publisher will not be held responsible for any remaining inaccuracies. If you require any further clarification, please contact our Customer Services Department.

Sulforaphane Accelerates Acetaldehyde Metabolism by Inducing Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: Relevance to Ethanol Intolerance

  1. Yusuke Ushida1,2 and
  2. Paul Talalay1,*
  1. 1Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
  2. 2Research Institute, Kagome Co. Ltd., 17 Nishitomiyama, Nasushiobara, Tochigi 3292762, Japan
  1. *Corresponding author: Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Tel.:+1–410-955-3499; Fax:+1-410-502-6818; E-mail: ptalalay{at}jhmi.edu
  • Received March 26, 2013.
  • Revision requested June 3, 2013.
  • Revision received June 4, 2013.
  • Accepted June 5, 2013.

Aims: Many East Asians are highly intolerant to even modest alcohol consumption. These individuals accumulate acetaldehyde, the primary metabolite of ethanol, because of a genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that metabolizes acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate. The aim of these studies is to upregulate ALDH by dietary means, thereby reducing acetaldehyde toxicity. Methods: Sulforaphane [SF, 1-isothiocyano-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from its glucosinolate precursor contained in cruciferous vegetables and related inducers of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway were assessed for their potencies to induce ALDH in murine hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. Inducer potencies for ALDH were compared with those for NQO1, a prototypical cytoprotective enzyme present downstream of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. SF (5 or 20 µmol/day) was fed to CD-1 mice for 7 days prior to a single administration of ethanol, and then ALDH induction in organs and pharmacokinetics of acetaldehyde was examined. Results: In addition to SF, other electrophiles, including many Michael reaction acceptors, induce ALDH. Potencies of these agents as inducers parallel their activities in inducing NQO1, and are also dependent on Nrf2. In mice, in vivo, feeding of SF induced tissue ALDH and dramatically increased (doubled) the rate of elimination of acetaldehyde arising from the administration of ethanol. Conclusion: SF and other edible phytochemicals may ameliorate the alcohol intolerance of individuals who are polymorphic with respect to ALDH.

Reduced Intra-individual Reaction Time Variability During a Go-NoGo Task in Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Patients After One Right-Sided Dorsolateral Prefrontal HF-rTMS Session

  1. S.C. Herremans1,*,
  2. M.-A. Vanderhasselt2,
  3. R. De Raedt2 and
  4. C. Baeken1,3
  1. 1Department of Psychiatry, UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
  2. 2Department of Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  3. 3Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  1. *Corresponding author: Psychiatric Department, University Hospital, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (V.U.B.), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium. Tel.: +32-24777724; Fax: +32-24777824; E-mail: sarah.herremans{at}uzbrussel.be
  • Received December 19, 2012.
  • Revision requested February 4, 2013.
  • Revision received February 27, 2013.
  • Accepted May 4, 2013.

Aims: As alcohol dependency is characterized by severe executive function deficits, we examined the influence of high-frequency (HF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on executive functioning in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: In this randomized, single blind, sham (placebo)-controlled, crossover study, we included 50 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. We examined the effect of a single right DLPFC HF-rTMS session on commission errors, mean reaction times (RTs) and intra-individual reaction time variability (IIRTV) during a Go–NoGo task (50% Go/50% NoGo condition) in 29 alcohol-dependent patients. Patients completed this cognitive task immediately before and immediately after the stimulation session. In order to avoid carry-over effects between stimulation sessions, a 1-week inter-session interval was respected. Because rTMS treatment has been shown to affect subjective craving, all patients were also assessed with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Results: After both stimulation conditions, we observed a significant decrease of commission errors, without differences between active and sham HF-rTMS stimulation. No significant difference was observed between active and sham stimulation on mean RT. However, only active stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in IIRTV. No effects of stimulation were found for the craving measurements. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, one right-sided HF-rTMS session stabilizes cognitive performance during executive control tasks, implying that active stimulation reduces patients' proneness to attentional lapses.

{micro}-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) Polymorphism A118G: Lack of Association in Finnish Populations with Alcohol Dependence or Alcohol Consumption

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  1. Noora Rouvinen-Lagerström1,
  2. Jari Lahti2,
  3. Hannu Alho1,3,
  4. Leena Kovanen1,
  5. Mauri Aalto1,4,
  6. Timo Partonen1,
  7. Kaisa Silander5,
  8. David Sinclair1,
  9. Katri Räikkönen2,
  10. Johan G. Eriksson6,7,8,9,
  11. Aarno Palotie10,11,12,
  12. Seppo Koskinen13 and
  13. Sirkku T. Saarikoski1,*
  1. 1Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
  2. 2Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  3. 3Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
  4. 4Department of Psychiatry, South Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Seinäjoki, Finland
  5. 5Unit of Public Health Genomics, National Institute for Health and Welfare, and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  6. 6National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
  7. 7Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  8. 8Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
  9. 9Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland
  10. 10Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  11. 11Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK
  12. 12Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, USA
  13. 13Department of Health, Functional Capacity and Welfare, National Institute of Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
  1. *Corresponding author: Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Department of Occupational Safety and Health, PO Box 33, FI-00023 Government, Finland; Tel.: +358-295163565; E-mail sirkku.saarikoski{at}stm.fi
  • Received February 26, 2013.
  • Revision requested March 30, 2013.
  • Revision received April 17, 2013.
  • Accepted April 24, 2013.

Abstract

Aims: The molecular epidemiological studies on the association of the opioid receptor µ-1 (OPRM1) polymorphism A118G (Asn40Asp, rs1799971) and alcohol use disorders have given conflicting results. The aim of this study was to test the possible association of A118G polymorphism and alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption in three large cohort-based study samples. Methods: The association between the OPRM1 A118G (Asn40Asp, rs1799971) polymorphism and alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption was analyzed using three different population-based samples: (a) a Finnish cohort study, Health 2000, with 503 participants having a DSM-IV diagnosis for alcohol dependence and/or alcohol abuse and 506 age- and sex-matched controls; (b) a Finnish cohort study, FINRISK (n = 2360) and (c) the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n = 1384). The latter two populations lacked diagnosis-based phenotypes, but included detailed information on alcohol consumption. Results: We found no statistically significant differences in genotypic or allelic distribution between controls and subjects with alcohol dependence or abuse diagnoses. Likewise no significant effects were observed between the A118G genotype and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: These results suggest that A118G (Asn40Asp) polymorphism may not have a major effect on the development of alcohol use disorders at least in the Finnish population.

Disclaimer: Please note that abstracts for content published before 1996 were created through digital scanning and may therefore not exactly replicate the text of the original print issues. All efforts have been made to ensure accuracy, but the Publisher will not be held responsible for any remaining inaccuracies. If you require any further clarification, please contact our Customer Services Department.